State-owned enterprises, which are favoured by China as levers to exercise their dominance, are somehow prevented from obtaining unfair subsidies from private companies.  The cheese agreement between the United States and Mexico. (PDF, 3 pages, 0.01 MB) The agreement is the result of a renegotiation between the member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which gave informal agreement on 30 September 2018 and officially on 1 October under the new agreement.  The USMCA was proposed by U.S. President Donald Trump and signed on November 30, 2018 by Trump, Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a secondary event of the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires. A revised version was signed on December 10, 2019 and ratified by the three countries, with final ratification (Canada) taking place on March 13, 2020 just before the Canadian Parliament adjourned due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, there is a provision that the agreement itself must be reviewed every six years by the three nations, with a 16-year forfeiture clause. The contract may be renewed for a period of 16 years during the six-year review period.  The introduction of the Sunset clause gives more control in the organization of the future of the USMCA in the hands of national governments. However, there is concern that this could lead to greater uncertainty.
Sectors such as automotive require significant investment in cross-border supply chains.  Given the dominant position of the U.S. consumer market, it is likely that this will put pressure on companies to establish more production in the United States, with a higher probability of higher production costs for these vehicles.  The U.S.-Mexico-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) is a trade agreement between these parties. The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate adopted the revised treaty by 107 votes to 1.  On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada, although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement.  On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with the support of all parties by 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.
 On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended.”   On March 1, 2019, many agricultural organizations were represented in the United States.